1.4.11 Children from Abroad, including Victims of Modern Slavery, Trafficking and Exploitation


This procedure is concerned with children arriving into the UK:

  • Alone;
  • In the care of adults who, whilst they may be their carers, have no Parental Responsibility for them;
  • In the care of adults who have no documents to demonstrate a relationship with the child;
  • In the care of agents.

This is a broad cohort of children, and it may include (but is not limited to) children who have been subject to trafficking and/or modern slavery, and/or may have been exposed to the additional risks of commercial, sexual or domestic exploitation. It may also include children who have been trafficked internally within the UK and children who come to the UK to live with a relative as part of a Private Fostering arrangement.

Part 1 of this chapter covers issues which will apply across this cohort.

Part 2 of this chapter covers the additional issues which will apply where children are identified as being potential victims of trafficking and/or modern slavery.


This chapter was updated in June 2020 to take account of the new NRM digital referral form and the change to a Single Competent Authority (SCA).

1. Part 1 - All Children Presenting Alone or with Adults who are Not Their Parents

1.1 Introduction

Evidence shows that unaccompanied migrant children or those accompanied by someone who is not their parent / carer are particularly vulnerable. Immigration legislation impacts significantly on work to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people from abroad.

It is important to note that regulations and legislation in this area of work are complex and subject to constant change through legal challenge. This guidance, therefore, intends to provide an overview of the additional issues faced by children within the framework of immigration law. All practitioners need to be aware of this context in their contact with such children. Legal advice about individual cases may be required.

Additional issues are likely to arise in relation to this cohort of children, regardless of whether they are found to be, or suspected of being, victims of trafficking or modern slavery. The additional issues are likely to include questions around the child's immigration status, the need for interpreters and the provision of specialist legal advice. Some of these children may have been persecuted and have witnessed or been subject to horrific acts of violence. Assessing the needs of these children is only possible if their legal status, background experiences and culture are understood, including the culture shock of arrival in this country.

Unaccompanied, internally displaced children may have come to the UK seeking asylum or to attend school or join their family. An unaccompanied child may be the subject of a Private Fostering arrangement, and subsequently exploited or abandoned when the arrangement fails (see Children Living Away from Home (including Children and Families living in Temporary Accommodation) Procedure, Private Fostering).  

Some children may say they are unaccompanied when claiming asylum - a trafficker may have told the child that in doing so they will be granted permission to stay in the UK and be entitled to claim welfare benefits.

A significant number of children who are referred to local authority care as trafficked children or unaccompanied asylum seeking children (UASC), will then go missing and many go missing within 1week. It is thought that they are then trafficked internally, within the UK, or out of the UK to other European countries.

Whenever an unaccompanied child presents in a local authority area, all agencies dealing with the child should be alert to the possibility that the child may have been a victim of modern slavery, including the possibility that the child has been trafficked, and ensure that all relevant information about the child's circumstances is communicated promptly to Children's Social Care Services. Information should be shared with consent where appropriate and where possible, but information can be shared without consent if the professional judgement is that there is good reason to do so, such as where a child's safety may be at risk.

If there are concerns that a child is a victim of trafficking, practitioners will need to inform the National Referral Mechanism, which is a framework for identifying victims of human trafficking or modern slavery and ensuring that they receive the appropriate support. The child's details should be shared using the forms available on the National Referral Mechanism Digital Referral System: Report Modern Slavery. See also: Section 1.3, Referring a Potential Victim of Modern Slavery to the National Referral Mechanism (NRM).

This chapter should be read in conjunction with the following government guidance:

Care of Unaccompanied Migrant Children and Child Victims of Modern Slavery: Statutory Guidance for Local Authorities, November 2017 - This guidance sets out the steps local authorities should take to plan for the provision of support for looked after children who are unaccompanied asylum seeking children, unaccompanied migrant children or child victims of modern slavery including trafficking. Elements of this guidance will also be relevant for the care of looked after UK nationals who may also be child victims of modern slavery.

Safeguarding Children who May Have Been Trafficked (Home Office, 2011) – is non-statutory government good practice guidance which provides detailed guidance on steps that local authorities should take, in partnership with other agencies, to identify and protect child victims of modern slavery, including trafficking, before they become looked after.

1.2 Issues and Challenges

The first contact with the child will be crucial to the promotion of trust which underpins the future support, advice and services.

Unaccompanied children should be assessed as a matter of urgency as they may be very geographically mobile and their vulnerabilities may be greater. All agencies should enable the child to be quickly linked into universal services, so their educational and health needs can be addressed.

Any assessment has to address not only the barriers which arise from cultural, linguistic and religious differences, but also the particular sensitivities which come from the experiences of many such children.

Particular sensitivities which may be present include:

  • Concerns around immigration status;
  • Fear of repatriation;
  • Anxiety raised by yet another practitioner asking similar question to ones previously asked;
  • Lack of understanding of the separate role of Children's Social Care Services, and that it is not an extension of the police;
  • Lack of understanding of why an assessment needs to be carried out;
  • Previous experience of being asked questions under threat or torture, or seeing that happen to someone else;
  • Past trauma - past regime/experiences can impact upon the child's mental and physical health. This experience can make concerns from the Authorities about minor injury or poor living conditions seem trivial and this mismatch may add to the fear and uncertainty;
  • The journey itself as well as the previous living situation may have been the source of trauma;
  • The shock of arrival - the alien culture, system and language can cause shock and uncertainty, and can affect mood, behaviour and presentation;
  • The child may have also been subject to frequent changes of address or location within the UK and may be living with the fear of sudden further unexplained moves;
  • Previous experience of abuse (physical, sexual and/or emotional) may manifest in inappropriate behaviours and/or misunderstanding of the motivations of adults making safeguarding interventions.

Agencies should ensure that an interpreter is used. The interpreter must share a common language with the child, have been screened through a DBS check and be appropriately trained to understand the particular issues the child may face and be independent (any adult accompanying the child must NEVER be used as an interpreter).

1.2.1 Age Assessments

The assessment of age is a complex task, which often relies on professional judgement and discretion. Many societies do not place a high level of importance upon age and it may also be calculated in different ways. Some young people may genuinely not know their age and this can be misread as lack of co-operation. Levels of competence in some areas or tasks may exceed or fall short of our expectations of a child of the same age in this country.

Local authorities should only carry out age assessments where there is significant reason to doubt that the claimant is a child; they should not be a routine part of the local authority's assessment of unaccompanied or trafficked children. Care of Unaccompanied Migrant Children and Child Victims of Modern Slavery - Statutory Guidance for Local Authorities (November 2017) provides that where the age of a person is uncertain and there are reasonable grounds to believe that they are under 18, they will be treated as a child in order to receive immediate access to assistance, support and protection in accordance with section 51 of the Modern Slavery Act 2015. An age assessment should only be carried out if it is appropriate to do so, and should not cause a delay in referring into the NRM. Where age assessments are conducted, they must be compliant with case law of Merton and subsequent judgments. 

The ADCS (Association of Directors of Children's Services) Asylum Task Force has worked with the Home Office to provide jointly agreed Age Assessment Guidance and Information Sharing Guidance for UASC.

1.2.2 Immigration Issues

All children, irrespective of their immigration status, are entitled to protection under the law. Local authorities need to ensure that child victims receive legal advice and support.

Children who are subject to immigration legislation may disappear into the community and wait until benefits can be awarded to them. During this interim period children may suffer particular hardship - e.g. live in overcrowded and unsuitable conditions with no access to health or educational services. They are particularly vulnerable to exploitation because of their circumstances.

Where a child disappears, and there are concerns about their welfare, the Children and Families Who Go Missing Procedure should be followed.

It may be appropriate for unaccompanied children to be informed of the availability of the Assisted Voluntary Return Scheme.

Asylum Process – Possible Outcomes

There are four main possible outcomes of the asylum process for an unaccompanied child, which will determine what the long term plan for their care might be. These are outlined below including the impact they may have on care and pathway planning:

  • Granted refugee status (i.e. granted asylum), with limited leave to remain for 5 years, after which time they can normally apply for settlement (i.e. indefinite leave to remain).
  • Refused asylum but granted humanitarian protection, with limited leave to remain for 5 years, after which time they can normally apply for settlement (i.e. indefinite leave to remain). This is most commonly granted where the person is at risk of a form of 'ill treatment' in their country of origin but which does not meet the criteria of the Refugee Convention.

    As it is very likely that those granted refugee status or humanitarian protection will qualify for indefinite leave to remain, their care and pathway planning should primarily focus on their long-term future in the UK, in the same way as for any other care leaver.
  • Refused asylum but granted Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Child (UASC) Leave. This is normally for 30 months or until the age of 17½, whichever is the shorter period. This form of leave is granted to unaccompanied children where they do not qualify for refugee status or humanitarian protection, but where the Home Office cannot return them to their home country because it is not satisfied that safe and adequate reception arrangements are in place in that country. It is a form of temporary leave to remain and is not a route to settlement. This decision is a refusal of the child's asylum claim and will attract a right of appeal. The child should be assisted to obtain legal advice on appealing against such a refusal. Before the child's UASC Leave expires, they can submit an application for further leave to remain and/or a fresh claim for asylum, which will be considered. It is essential that they are assisted to access legal advice and make any such further application or claim before their UASC Leave expires;
  • Refused asylum and granted no leave to remain. In this case the unaccompanied child is expected to return to their home country and their care plan should address the relevant actions and the support required. The Home Office will not return an unaccompanied child to their home country unless it is satisfied that safe and adequate reception arrangements are in place in that country. Any appeal or further application should be submitted where appropriate by the child's legal adviser.

    Although these are the four main types of outcomes for an unaccompanied child, there may be others. For example, a child may be granted discretionary leave depending on whether they meet other criteria such as needing to stay in the UK to help police with their enquires after being conclusively identified as a victim of trafficking. Other examples include: leave as a stateless person; limited or discretionary leave for compassionate reasons; and limited leave on the basis of family or private life.

1.3 Referring a Potential Victim of Modern Slavery to the National Referral Mechanism (NRM)

A local authority (as a 'first responder') identifying a potential victim of modern slavery must refer them to the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) for consideration by the Single Competent Authority (SCA). Children's Social Care Services are able to make a referral into the NRM, as they may be entitled to further support. Victims can be of any nationality, and may include British national children, such as those trafficked for child sexual exploitation or those trafficked as drug carriers internally in the UK. The NRM does not supersede child protection procedures, so existing safeguarding processes should still be followed in tandem with the notifications to the NRM. See also: National Referral Mechanism: Guidance for Child First Responders.

There is no minimum requirement for justifying a referral into the NRM and consent is not required for children. Communicate honestly with the child about your concerns and reasons for referring them into the NRM.

To complete and see where to send the forms, and the associated guidance, visit Digital Referral System: Report Modern Slavery.

The Duty to Notify - Local authorities have a duty to notify the Home Office about any potential victims of Modern Slavery. It is intended to gather better data about modern slavery. This requirement can be satisfied by completing the National Referral Mechanism Digital Form.

1.4 Protection and Action to be Taken

Whenever any professional comes across a child who they believe has recently moved into this country the following basic information should be sought:

  • Confirmation of the child's identity and immigration status;
  • Confirmation of the child's health and education arrangements in this country;
  • Confirmation of the child's health and education arrangements in the country of origin and any other country that the child has travelled through.

This should be done in a way which is as unthreatening to the child as possible.

When an unaccompanied child or child accompanied by someone who does not have Parental Responsibility comes to the attention of any practitioner, a referral should be made to Children's Social Care Services in accordance with the Referrals Procedure. An Assessment will be undertaken in order to determine whether they are a Child in Need of services, including the need for protection.

Whether they are unaccompanied or accompanied by someone who is not their parent they should be assumed to be a Child in Need unless assessment indicates that this is not the case. The assessment of need should include a separate discussion with the child in a setting where, as far as possible, they feel able to talk freely. This, in itself, may be a complex process where the assessor may not be able to speak the same language as the child.

Many unaccompanied and/or trafficked children are at risk of going missing from care, often within the first 72 hours, whilst others may be at risk of repeated missing episodes due to ongoing exploitation.


The Assessment will be conducted in accordance with the Single Assessment Procedure. The following additional issues will also need to be taken into consideration.

Assessing the needs of these children is only possible if their legal status, background experiences and culture are understood, including the culture shock of arrival in this country.

This is a highly complex area of work and professionals will need to have available to them a solid understanding of the asylum process or colleagues or other professionals with such expertise.

Seeking information from abroad should be a routine part of assessing the situation of an unaccompanied child. Practitioners from all key agencies - Health, Education, Children's Social Care Services and the Police - should all be prepared to request information from their equivalent agencies in the country or countries in which a child has lived, in order to gain as full as possible a picture of the child's preceding circumstances.

The child should be offered an Independent Visitor and, if they decline, their reasons should be recorded. Any Independent Visitor appointed should have appropriate training and demonstrate an understanding of the needs faced by unaccompanied or trafficked children.

The Assessment should take account of any particular psychological or emotional impact of experiences as an unaccompanied or trafficked child, and any consequent need for psychological or mental health support to help the child deal with them.

Unaccompanied migrant children and child victims of modern slavery will need access to specialist legal advice and support. This will be in relation to immigration and asylum applications and decisions and any associated legal proceedings. If they have been a victim of modern slavery, it may also be in relation to criminal proceedings or compensation claims. The assessment should note that specialist legal support is required and how it will be provided.

Planning for the child should include planning for a variety of possible outcomes regarding the child's immigration status - see Asylum Process – Possible Outcomes.

2. Part 2 - Child Victims of Trafficking and/or Modern Slavery

2.1 Definitions

'Modern slavery' is a form of organised crime in which individuals including children and young people are treated as commodities and exploited for criminal and financial gain. It encompasses human trafficking, slavery, servitude and forced labour.

The Modern Slavery Act 2015 provides better protection for victims and increases the sentences for committing these offences.

Grooming methods are often used to gain the trust of a child and their parents, e.g. the promise of a better life or education, which results in a life of abuse, servitude and inhumane treatment.

'Trafficking of persons' means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.

'Exploitation' for modern slavery purposes is defined, as a minimum, to include: sexual exploitation, forced labour, domestic servitude and organ trafficking.

Trafficked victims are coerced or deceived by the person arranging their relocation, and are often subject to physical, sexual and mental abuse. The trafficked child or person is denied their human rights and is forced into exploitation by the trafficker or person into whose control they are delivered.

Children are not considered able to give 'informed consent' to their own exploitation (including criminal exploitation), so it is not necessary to consider the means used for the exploitation - whether they were forced, coerced or deceived, i.e. a child's consent to being trafficked is irrelevant and it is not necessary to prove coercion or any other inducement.

2.2 Types of Exploitation

Boys and girls of all ages are affected and can be trafficked into, within ('internal trafficking'), and out of the UK for many reasons and all forms of exploitation.

Victims may be sexually exploited and forced into sex work. Victims have been found in brothels, saunas and lap dancing clubs. Persons subject to forced labour have been found working with little or no pay in farms, factories, nail bars, car washes, hotels and restaurants. Domestic servitude involves victims who work in a household where they are subject to long working hours with little or no pay, often in very poor working conditions. Sometimes forced marriage can lead to domestic servitude. Criminal exploitation can involve young people being forced to work in cannabis cultivation, county lines exploitation, begging and pick-pocketing. Other types of exploitation include debt bondage (being forced to work to pay off debts that realistically they will never be able to), organ harvesting, financial fraud (including benefit fraud), and illegal adoption. For further information, see Typology of 17 Types of Modern Slavery Offences in the UK.

Victims often face more than one type of abuse and slavery, for example they may be sold to another trafficker and then forced into another form of exploitation.

Children and young people may be exploited by parents, carers or family members. Often the child or young person will not realise that family members are involved in the exploitation.

The Modern Slavery Act 2015 (applicable mostly in England and Wales[1]) provides two civil prevention orders - the Slavery and Trafficking Prevention Orders (STPO) and Slavery and Trafficking Risk Order (STRO), and provision for child trafficking advocates.

[1] Some provisions also concern Northern Ireland and Scotland. Also see the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015 and the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015.

2.3 Indicators

Identification of potential child victims of modern slavery/trafficking may be difficult as they might not show obvious signs of distress or abuse. Some children are unaware that they have been trafficked, while others may actively participate in hiding that they have been trafficked. Even when a child understands what has happened, they may still appear to submit willingly to what they believe to be the will of their parents or accompanying adults. It is important that these children are protected too. Children do not have the legal capacity to 'consent' to their trafficking or their exploitation.

Signs that a child has been trafficked may not be obvious, or children may show signs of multiple forms of abuse and neglect. Spotting the potential signs of child slavery/trafficking in referrals and children you work with can include:

  • A reluctance to seek help - victims may be wary of the authorities for many reasons such as not knowing who to trust or a fear of deportation or concern regarding their immigration status and may avoid giving details of accommodation or personal details;
  • The child may seem like a willing participant in their exploitation, e.g. involvement in lucrative criminal activity - however this does not mean they have benefitted from the proceeds;
  • Discrepancies in the information victims have provided due to traffickers forcing them to provide incorrect stories;
  • An unwillingness to disclose details of their experience due to being in a situation of dependency;
  • Brought or moved from another country;
  • An unrelated or new child discovered at an address;
  • Unsatisfactory living conditions - may be living in dirty, cramped or overcrowded accommodation;
  • Missing - from care, home or school - including  a pattern of registration and de-registration from different schools;
  • Children may be found in brothels and saunas;
  • Spending a lot of time doing household chores;
  • May be working in catering, nail bars, caring for children and cleaning;
  • Rarely leaving their home, with no freedom of movement and no time for playing;
  • Orphaned or living apart from their family, often in unregulated private foster care;
  • Limited English or knowledge of their local area in which they live;
  • False documentation, no passport or identification documents;
  • Few or no personal effects - few personal possessions and tend to wear the same clothing;
  • No evidence of parental permission for the child to travel to the UK or stay with the adult;
  • Little or no evidence of any pre-existing relationship with the adult or even an absence of any knowledge of the accompanying adult;
  • Significantly older partner;
  • Underage marriage.

Physical Appearance - Victims may show signs of physical or psychological abuse, look malnourished or unkempt, or appear withdrawn. 

Physical illnesses - Including work-related injuries through poor health and safety measures, or injuries apparently as a result of assault or controlling measures. There may be physical indications of working (e.g. overly tired in school or indications of manual labour).

Sexual health indicators - Sexually transmitted infections, or pregnancy; injuries of a sexual nature and /or gynaecological symptoms.

Psychological indicators - Suffering from post traumatic stress disorder which may include symptoms of hostility, aggression and difficulty with recalling episodes and concentrating. Depression/self-harm and/or suicidal feelings; an attitude of self blame, shame and extensive loss of control; drug and/or alcohol use. May also include the desire to accelerate intimacy within friendships and relationships.

2.4 Protection and Action to be Taken

Modern slavery and trafficking are  child abuse, and any potential victim of child trafficking or slavery, servitude, or forced or compulsory labour should immediately be referred to Children's Social Care Services in the area, as they may be suffering significant harm - see Referrals Procedure.

In addition to the usual actions to be taken, additional considerations will apply if the child is suspected of being a victim of trafficking and/or modern slavery. Once a potential victim has been identified, practitioners should inform them of their right to protection, support, and assistance in any criminal proceedings against offenders. Practitioners should arrange access to specialist legal advice and support. Trafficked children may apply to UK Visas and Immigration for asylum or humanitarian protection. This is because they often face a high level of risk of harm if they are forced to return to their country of origin.

If the child or anyone connected to them is in immediate danger the police should be contacted as normal.

Practitioners should meet any urgent health needs and arrange emergency medical treatment if appropriate.

Practitioners must arrange safe accommodation for the potential victim.


Where a child is a victim or potential victim of Modern Slavery/Trafficking, the Assessment should be carried out immediately as the opportunity to intervene is very narrow. Many trafficked children go missing from care, often within the first 72 hours. There should be a clear understanding between the local authority and the police of roles in planning for the protection and responding if a child goes missing.

During the Assessment, the lead social worker should establish the child's background history including a new or recent photograph, passport and visa details, Home Office papers and proof and details of the guardian or carer.

Where the outcome of the assessment is that the child becomes looked after, the social worker and carers must consider the child's vulnerability to the continuing influence/control of the traffickers and how they may seek to contact them for instance by mobile phone or the internet. Planning and actions to support the child must minimise the risk of the traffickers being able to re-involve a child in exploitative activities:

  • The location of the child must not be divulged to any enquirers until they have been interviewed by a social worker and their identity and relationship/connection with the child established, with the help of police and immigration services, if required;
  • Foster carers/residential workers must be vigilant about anything unusual e.g. waiting cars outside the premises and telephone enquiries.

The social worker must immediately pass to the police any information on the child (concerning risks to their safety or any other aspect of the law pertaining either to child protection or immigration or other matters) which emerges during the placement. The social worker must try to make contact with the child's parents in the country of origin (immigration services may be able to help), to find out the plans they have made for their child and to seek their views. The social worker must take steps to verify the relationship between the child and those thought to be their parent/s. Before a decision is made to try and contact a child's parents, a consideration of their possible involvement in criminal offences and exploitation of the child concerned is essential.

Anyone approaching the local authority and claiming to be a potential carer, friend, member of the family etc, of the child, should be investigated by the social worker, the police and immigration service. If the supervising manager is satisfied that all agencies have completed satisfactory identification checks and risk assessments, the child may transfer to their care.

The child should be offered an Independent Visitor and, if they decline, their reasons should be recorded. Any Independent Visitor appointed should have appropriate training and demonstrate an understanding of the needs faced by unaccompanied or trafficked children.

The Assessment should take account of any particular psychological or emotional impact of experiences as an unaccompanied or trafficked child, and any consequent need for psychological or mental health support to help the child deal with them.

Practitioners must always ensure that a victim-centred approach to tackling all types of trafficking and modern slavery is taken. This can be achieved by the following:

  • Dealing with the child sensitively to avoid them being alarmed or shamed - building trust, as victims commonly feel fear towards the authorities;
  • Keeping in mind the child's:
    • Added vulnerability;
    • Developmental stage;
    • Possible grooming by the perpetrator.

It is important that practitioners make careful notes about what is disclosed, as a child may have difficulty recalling what they've experienced as a result of trauma. This will support the child and help others understand the process of disclosure.

When speaking to a potential victim, initially observe non verbal communication and body language between the victim and their perpetrator.

It is important to consider the potential victim's safety and that of their loved ones. Confidentiality and careful handling of personal information is imperative to ensure the child's safety. Practitioners must not disclose to anyone not directly involved in the case, any details that may compromise their safety.

For further advice and support the Child Trafficking Advice Centre (CTAC) provides free guidance to professionals concerned that a child or young person is a victim of modern slavery.

Further Information

Independent Child Trafficking Guardians – Interim Guidance (Home Office, 2021) - ICTGs are an independent source of advice for children who have been trafficked and somebody who can speak up on their behalf.

Statutory Guidance Modern Slavery: How to Identify and Support Victims

Care of Unaccompanied Migrant Children and Child Victims of Modern Slavery: Statutory Guidance for Local Authorities, November 2017

Safeguarding Children who May Have Been Trafficked (Home Office, 2011) - non-statutory government good practice guidance.

Modern Slavery Helpline and Resource Centre - Unseen (Registered Charity)

NSPCC Child Trafficking Advice Centre (CTAC) - specialist advice and information to professionals who have concerns that a child may have been trafficked.

Home Office Circular - Modern Slavery Act 2015

Modern Slavery: Duty to Notify Factsheets (GOV.UK, October 2016)

How to Report Modern Slavery (Home Office, December 2016)

Guidance on Processing Children's Asylum Claims - sets out the process which immigration officials follow in determining an asylum claim from a child and the possible outcomes for the child.

National Referral Mechanism: Guidance for Child First Responders - provides details on how to refer a child into the NRM and complete the referral form, reviews of decisions and the benefits of referral.

National Transfer Protocol for Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children - interim national transfer procedure and transfer flow chart for the safe transfer of UASC from one UK local authority to another.

Child Protection: Working with Foreign Authorities - guidance on child protection cases and care orders where the child has links to a foreign country.

Local Government Association - Council Support: Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Unaccompanied Children - resource for council staff, designed to answer questions about supporting refugees, asylum seekers and unaccompanied children.

Unaccompanied Asylum-seeking Children (UASC): Funding Instructions, 28 April 2014, Guidance, UKVI: Instructions to local authorities about the UASC funding (2013 to 2014) for the support and care of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children.

Modern Slavery Act 2015

Modern Slavery Act 2015: Recent developments - Briefing Paper, July 2016

College of Policing - Modern Slavery

NSPCC - Are You a Child Who Has Come to the UK from Another Country?

Modern Slavery - Royal College of Nursing Guide for Nurses and Midwives

Refugee and Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children and Young People - Guidance for Paediatricians (Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health)

Refugee Council - Children's Panel - national remit to offer advice and support to unaccompanied children, and advise other professionals who are involved in their care.

Modern Slavery Human Trafficking Centre (MSHTU)

Gangmasters & Labour Abuse Authority